Mandarin recruitment under the Ly Dynasty
The mandarin recruitment during the Ly dynasty was conducted mainly in three ways: “tuyen cu” (nomination-based recruitment), “nhiem tu” (recruitment of mandarins’ offspring) and “khoa cu” (examination-based recruitment). In addition, a new way was also used, that was “nop tien” (money payment). In his book titled “Lich trieu hien chuong loai chi” (Regulations of Successive Dynasties), historian Phan Huy Chu wrote: “Under the Ly dynasty, when examinations for public office were not regularly organized yet, the recruitment of mandarins was implemented primarily through nomination-based recruitment, recruitment from mandarins’ offspring and money payment.”
Personal liability and corporate liability under new Penal Code
On June 20, 2017, the National Assembly passed the revised Penal Code. It became effective on January 1, 2018. Several significant changes have occurred. Several acts, previously criminal, are no longer punishable. On the other hand, several previously innocent acts have been criminalized. One very large change is that an enterprise-not just an individual-may now be guilty of a crime1.
National Assembly passes seven laws during fifth session
After three weeks of sitting, the 14th National Assembly completed its working agenda of the fifth session, voting to pass seven laws to continue the institutionalization of the 2013 Constitution, improve the legal system on economic development, human rights, and basic rights and obligations of citizens, and ensure national defense and security.