Orientations for Vietnam’s education in the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution
The Fourth Industrial Revolution has spread worldwide as a result of the unprecedented effects of the pace of development and impact of technology breakthroughs. Innovations and scientific advances are present in all fields, such as artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, the Internet of Things, fully autonomous vehicles, biotechnology, nano technology, 3D printing, material science, quantum computing, etc., and affect almost every industry at such a rapid speed that the Fourth Industrial Revolution is said to be evolving at an exponential pace.
Is it better to arbitrate in Vietnam or to arbitrate abroad?
Three types of dispute qualify for arbitration in Vietnam. Firstly, disputes involving “commercial activity” can be arbitrated. Commercial activity is any “activity with a profit-making purpose comprising the purchase and sale of goods, provision of services, investment, commercial enhancement, and other activities for profit-making purposes.” Secondly, arbitration is allowed if one party to the contract is engaged in a commercial activity, say, a vendor in a dispute with a customer. Finally, the law requires that some disputes be settled by arbitration. Disputes that are specifically stipulated by law also qualify for arbitration. For example, contracts that relate to investments under the 2014 Law on Investment, qualify for arbitration. Arbitration is not a general right. Use of arbitration is subject to agreement. That is, the parties have to agree to arbitrate. Agreement to arbitrate can be made in any written form. The agreement may be part of an underlying agreement that is itself in dispute or it may be a separate agreement to arbitrate. Any modification, extension, termination, or invalidity of the contract will not affect the arbitration clause. This follows the separability doctrine of the New York Convention.
Measures to supervise six ministries under the Nguyen Dynasty
During more than 1,000 years of domination by northern feudalists, the Vietnamese feudal state was established after the state model of feudal China, from state institutions, ruling method, organizational system to mandarin titles. Following the reform initiated by King Le Thanh Tong (1442-1497), the state apparatus of feudal Vietnam was further developed with “luc bo” (six ministries) being key state agencies and the backbone of the central administration.
Mandarin recruitment under the Ly Dynasty
The mandarin recruitment during the Ly dynasty was conducted mainly in three ways: “tuyen cu” (nomination-based recruitment), “nhiem tu” (recruitment of mandarins’ offspring) and “khoa cu” (examination-based recruitment). In addition, a new way was also used, that was “nop tien” (money payment). In his book titled “Lich trieu hien chuong loai chi” (Regulations of Successive Dynasties), historian Phan Huy Chu wrote: “Under the Ly dynasty, when examinations for public office were not regularly organized yet, the recruitment of mandarins was implemented primarily through nomination-based recruitment, recruitment from mandarins’ offspring and money payment.”
“Continuous line” map - new wine in old bottles
The story of the “nine-dash line”, the so-called China’s claim in the South China Sea, or the East Sea as it is called in Vietnam, seems to have sunk into the past after the award of the Arbitral Tribunal in the Philippines case against China in 2016. In this ruling, the Tribunal rejected the so-called “historic rights” of China in the waters within the “nine-dash line”. The idea is that the “nine-dash line” no longer exists after the ruling of the Arbitral Tribunal, but recently, the international press is stirred about the “nine-dash line” but under a new shape.