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Friday, October 7, 2022
Tags: mandarin recruitment
Recruitment of mandarins in feudal Vietnam Recruitment of mandarins in feudal Vietnam
In feudal Vietnam from the 15th to 19th centuries, mandarins were recruited mainly through “nhiem tu”; “khoa cu”; and “tien cu” or “bao cu”. During the Ly and Tran dynasties (1009-1400), nhiem tu was the major method of recruitment, by which various positions in the central and local administrations were assigned to royal family members. This method continued to be used in subsequent periods although it was no longer the major one.
Mandarin recruitment via competition-examinations under the Nguyen Dynasty Mandarin recruitment via competition-examinations under the Nguyen Dynasty
Pham Thi Thu Hien, LL.M Hanoi Law University
Process of recruiting mandarins through “khoa cu” (competition-based examinations) under the Nguyen dynasty (1802-1884)
The competition-based examination regime was introduced in Vietnam very early in 1075 when the Ly dynasty opened for the first time two competition-based examinations: “Minh kinh Bac hoc” and “Nho hoc Tam truong”. From the 15th century to the Nguyen dynasty period, the feudal rulers added many regulations to improve the regime and made it the major mode of recruiting talents.
Mandarin recruitment under the Ly Dynasty Mandarin recruitment under the Ly Dynasty
The mandarin recruitment during the Ly dynasty was conducted mainly in three ways: “tuyen cu” (nomination-based recruitment), “nhiem tu” (recruitment of mandarins’ offspring) and “khoa cu” (examination-based recruitment). In addition, a new way was also used, that was “nop tien” (money payment). In his book titled “Lich trieu hien chuong loai chi” (Regulations of Successive Dynasties), historian Phan Huy Chu wrote: “Under the Ly dynasty, when examinations for public office were not regularly organized yet, the recruitment of mandarins was implemented primarily through nomination-based recruitment, recruitment from mandarins’ offspring and money payment.”[1]
Administrative reforms under Vietnamese feudal dynasties Administrative reforms under Vietnamese feudal dynasties
Through thousands of years of their existence in Vietnam, various feudal dynasties carried out many administrative reforms with a view to consolidating the kings’ power.
Ethos of the feudal mandarin regime in Vietnam Ethos of the feudal mandarin regime in Vietnam
Through thousands of years of existence of the feudal regime in Vietnam, many political and legal institutions were created and consolidated. The mandarin regime is one of such institutions. Besides its substantive weaknesses and limitations, the feudal mandarin regime in Vietnam is characterized by its ethos worth of study.
Position-related crimes in Vietnams ancient laws Position-related crimes in Vietnam's ancient laws
In Vietnamese ancient laws, the law-makers classified with full consciousness crimes into different categories: position-related crimes, crimes against the national security, military crimes, crimes of burglary and robbery, sexual crimes, economic crimes, etc.

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