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Official Gazette

Friday, February 3, 2023
Tags: Tonkin Civil Code
Tonkin Civil Code - A combination between Asian and European laws Tonkin Civil Code - A combination between Asian and European laws
In the early 20th century, after decades of ruling, the French colonialists planned a political reform of Indochina, including Vietnam. In the legal area, they directed the compilation of many new codes in replacement of old feudal laws of the Nguyen dynasty. During this period they promulgated a dozen of new codes, including “Bo Dan Luat Bac Ky” (the Tonkin Civil Code), which was compiled from 1917 and enacted in the name of the Hue royal court in 1931.
General legal provisions on inheritance from 1945 till now General legal provisions on inheritance from 1945 till now
Setting great store by family and ancestry has long been a Vietnamese tradition. As a result, inheritance has been one of the fundamental institutions of such codes as the Hong Duc Code (the 15th century) and the Gia Long Code (the 19th century) during the feudal time, the Tonkin Civil Code (1931) and the Central Vietnam Civil Code (1936) during the French rule.
French-ruled Vietnams legislation on family relations French-ruled Vietnam’s legislation on family relations
Vietnamese legislation during the French tenure protected and consolidated the traditions of the oriental families, heightened the patriarchal position of the husbands and the fathers, the family sustainability and harmony, the observance of the hierarchical order and the mutual responsibility of the family members.
Martial institutions in French-rules Vietnams legislation Martial institutions in French-rules Vietnam's legislation
In Vietnamese legislation during the French rule, the marital institutions were set in the Tonkin Civil Code promulgated in 1931 and the Central Vietnam Civil Code promulgated in 1936. By inheriting the Orient’s marriage and family traditions while more or less absorbing some elements of the West’s bourgeois legislation thereon, the then law-makers reconciled and combined the elements of customs and practices with the elements of modernity.
Legislation in French-ruled Vietnam Legislation in French-ruled Vietnam
In the semi-feudal colonial society of Vietnam during the French time, there existed simultanously two legal systems: The French rulers’ legal system and the local feudalists’ system. Yet, the latter was in fact a part and parcel of the colonial legislation and governed by the French’s legislation.
History and principles of commercial law in Vietnam History and principles of commercial law in Vietnam
Under the feudal regime, Vietnam was a self-sufficient society in which agriculture was highly valued and commerce was restricted. Traders could not form themselves into a socially recognized caste and did not have their own legal status, so there was no separate law for them.

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