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Official Gazette

Monday, October 3, 2022
Gia Long Code and a new step of feminism Gia Long Code and a new step of feminism
Gia Long Code, compiled by the Northern Citadel Governor Nguyen Van Thanh and promulgated by King Gia Long in 1815 - 13 years after the founding of the Nguyen Dynasty, was the official code of Vietnam in the early Nguyen Dynasty and continued to be applied in the Central Vietnam during the French colonial period.
Recruitment of mandarins in feudal Vietnam Recruitment of mandarins in feudal Vietnam
In feudal Vietnam from the 15th to 19th centuries, mandarins were recruited mainly through “nhiem tu”; “khoa cu”; and “tien cu” or “bao cu”. During the Ly and Tran dynasties (1009-1400), nhiem tu was the major method of recruitment, by which various positions in the central and local administrations were assigned to royal family members. This method continued to be used in subsequent periods although it was no longer the major one.
Land-related provisions in Le Dynastys Quoc Trieu Hinh Luat Land-related provisions in Le Dynasty’s “Quoc Trieu Hinh Luat”
Quoc Trieu Hinh Luat (The National Criminal Code) of the Le dynasty (1428-1527) was the culmination of legislative work in feudal Vietnam. With 722 articles arranged in 13 chapters, it dealt with almost all basic social relations then, from criminal, marriage-family, inheritance, contractual, procedural, and land to administrative issues.
Procedural law in Vietnam during the 15th and 19th centuries - historical and contemporary values Procedural law in Vietnam during the 15th and 19th centuries - historical and contemporary values
The procedural law and regulations in Vietnam during the 15th and 19 centuries were prescribed fairly comprehensively and specifically in “Quoc Trieu Hinh Luat” (the National Criminal Code) of the late Le dynasty and “Hoang Viet Luat Le” (the Royal Laws and Regulations of Vietnam) under the Nguyen dynasty. They were also codified into “Quoc Trieu Kham Tung Dieu Le” (the National Procedural Regulations of Royal Dynasties), which was really a distinctive legal phenomenon of the Vietnamese feudal laws.
The vulnerables rights protected by Vietnams feudal law The vulnerable’s rights protected by Vietnam’s feudal law
In Vietnam’s feudal regime, the vulnerable included women, the elderly, children, persons with disabilities, widows, widowers, the lonely, ethnic minorities, persons with nobody to rely on, prisoners and, in a broader sense, people in general as commoners in relation to the state. The feudal states paid attention to these disadvantaged groups and protected their legitimate rights and interests. The human rights then were understood in a narrow sense as legitimate needs and interests of people, which were recognized and protected to a certain extent by law.
Family morality in Vietnams feudal laws Family morality in Vietnam’s feudal laws
During the feudal time, Vietnamese family relationships were governed by not only Confucian principles but also fundamental morals, which established a code of conduct among family members and affirmed the rules for family ties. Children were expected to show their filial piety towards parents and grandparents while brothers and sisters to show self-denial and altruism to one another. The harmonious combination of the fundamental morals and Confucian principles among family members has formed the traditional family culture of Vietnamese people. Vietnamese feudal laws institutionalized the traditional morality with specific duties for family members and measures against violations. The values and limitations of Vietnamese feudal laws in this regard have been inherited and abolished in the spirit of ensuring equality, freedom and human rights for women, the elderly and children - the disadvantaged members in families and society.
Human rights and civil rights as enshrined in Vietnams constitutions Human rights and civil rights as enshrined in Vietnam’s constitutions
All nations consider human rights and civil rights as the basic and indispensable institutions of their constitutions. Recognizing, guaranteeing and protecting human rights and civil rights are constitutional missions and objectives in nations around the world as well as in Vietnam.
The 1946 general election - a milestone in formation and development of the democratic institution of Vietnam The 1946 general election - a milestone in formation and development of the democratic institution of Vietnam
The election of deputies to the 15th National Assembly, to be held on May 23, constitutes a new landmark in the history of the Vietnamese National Assembly, which has constantly developed with many important achievements in constitutional and legislative activities as well as in making decisions on major issues of the country.
Mandarin recruitment via competition-examinations under the Nguyen Dynasty Mandarin recruitment via competition-examinations under the Nguyen Dynasty
Pham Thi Thu Hien, LL.M Hanoi Law University
Process of recruiting mandarins through “khoa cu” (competition-based examinations) under the Nguyen dynasty (1802-1884)
The competition-based examination regime was introduced in Vietnam very early in 1075 when the Ly dynasty opened for the first time two competition-based examinations: “Minh kinh Bac hoc” and “Nho hoc Tam truong”. From the 15th century to the Nguyen dynasty period, the feudal rulers added many regulations to improve the regime and made it the major mode of recruiting talents.
Punitive measures against corruption under the Nguyen dynasty Punitive measures against corruption under the Nguyen dynasty
Tran Hong Nhung LL.D.
Hanoi Law University
The Nguyen dynasty (1802-1884) was often recalled for its strong determination to fight corruption through resolute, strict and clear measures, which served as an effective tool to deter and educate the public as well as to prevent and restrict embezzlement and corruption. In 207 corruption cases recorded in “Dai Nam thuc luc” (Chronicles of Great Vietnam), a 10-volume authentic history book, the Nguyen rulers applied various punitive measures against such crime, which can be classified into criminal and administrative ones.

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