Mandarin recruitment under the Ly Dynasty
The mandarin recruitment during the Ly dynasty was conducted mainly in three ways: “tuyen cu” (nomination-based recruitment), “nhiem tu” (recruitment of mandarins’ offspring) and “khoa cu” (examination-based recruitment). In addition, a new way was also used, that was “nop tien” (money payment). In his book titled “Lich trieu hien chuong loai chi” (Regulations of Successive Dynasties), historian Phan Huy Chu wrote: “Under the Ly dynasty, when examinations for public office were not regularly organized yet, the recruitment of mandarins was implemented primarily through nomination-based recruitment, recruitment from mandarins’ offspring and money payment.”
Traditional villages of Viet peasants
Lang (village) is a Viet ethnic group’s word referring to a traditional unit of settlement of Viet peasants in rural areas, with its own territory, infrastructure facilities, organizational structure, customs and practices, psychology, perceptions, characters and even dialect or accent which are relatively stable over the course of history.
Anti-corruption lessons learnt from King Le Thanh Tong
King Le Thanh Tong left glorious imprints on the Vietnamese history. After 38 years on the throne, from 1460 to 1497, he bequeathed great treasures in all political, economic, social, legal, military and diplomatic aspects. They include two valuable lessons for the ongoing anti-corruption work in Vietnam, that is, “building a clean administration” and “fighting corruption by law”.